Main processes involved in peopling the world

Eternity. High up in the North in the land called Svithjod, there stands a rock. It is a hundred miles high and a hundred miles wide. Once every thousand years a little bird comes to this rock to sharpen its beak. When the rock is worn away, then a single day of eternity will have gone by." (Hendrick Van Loon in The Story of Mankind).

  1. Genesus--evolved in southern Africa; Great apes; closely related to Gorillas and chimpanzees Genetic distances: gorillas to humans=1.4%; Humans to chimpanzees=1.2%; chimpanzees to gorillas=1.2%; also fossil records trace origin to Africa.

  2. Spread--movement out of Africa via land bridges initially and gateways; later with boats/ships etc.

  3. Isolation--geographic isolating mechanisms include mountains, oceans, deserts, jungles, distance.

  4. Differentiation--adaptation, evolution, founder effects, bottlenecks, drift all contribute to morphological and behavioral changes in any biological population; later with humans have biocultural mechanisms of isolation.

Three Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for Evolution:

Factors affecting genetic change in populations:

Evolutionary Constraint: Promises
"I never could keep a promise. I do not blame myself for this weakness, because the fault must lie in my physical organization. It is likely that such a liberal amount of space was given to the organ which enables me to make promises that the organ which should enable me to keep them was crowded out." quotation from Chpt. 23 in The Innocents Abroad by Mark Twain (1869).

  1. Selection: (i)natural selectionThe differential contribution of offspring to the next generation by individuals of different genetic types but belonging to the same population. The differentials may be due to differences in reproduction or survival; (ii)sexual selectionthe differential ability of individuals of different genetic types to acquire mates. One-of-two types of sexual selection: i)female choice (eg. the female pea hen consorts with the peacock which has most attractive tail); or ii)male-male competition (eg. elephant seal bulls fight each other for access to females and create a harem); and (iii)kin selectionthe selection of genes due to one or more individuals favoring or disfavoring the survival and reproduction of relatives (other than offspring) who possess the same genes by common descent.

  2. Bottleneck--drastic decrease in numbers of individuals of a population usually resulting in a reduction of genetic variability. An example of a bottleneck is when a famine drastically reduces a population size. The surviving members of the population will possess traits that helped them survive the famine such as an ability to carry greater body fat or the ability to out-compete others searching for scarce food. These traits will thus be more widespread in subsequent generations since the genetic stock of those not possessing those traits was eliminated due to the famine.

  3. Founder Effect--extreme case of genetic drift; occurs when small number of indivuduals colonize an area and thus have small amount of genetic variability.

  4. Drift--random changes in traits with time.

Fundamental Biological Traits in Humans

  1. Tropical origin. The great apes evolved in tropical East Africa. This is important because there is no distinct breeding season.

  2. Bipedalism. Although some primates are capable of walking on two legs, humans are the only primate and one of the very few mammals (e.g. kangaroos) is truly bipedal. As Richard Leakey notes: The origin of bipedal locomotion is so significant an adaptation that we are justified in calling all species of bipedal ape "human." This is not to say that the first bipedal ape species possessed a degree of technology, increased intellect, or any of the cultural attributes of humanity. It didn't. My point is that the adoption of bipedalism was so loaded with evolutionary potentialallowing the upper limbs to be free to become manipulative implements one daythat its importance should be recognized in our nomenclatures. These humans were not like us, but without the bipedal adaptation they couldn't have become like us. The "triple pack"bipedalism, large brain, and tools, did not arrive simultaneously. Theories on bipedalism: (i)carryingweapons, tools, food, infants; (ii)travelling between food trees; (iii)feeding from bushes; (iv)feeding on grass seeds; (v)provisioning family (see Shreeve 1996).

  3. Large brains. Tthis aspect sets humans apart from other animals including other primates. There are constraints on the size of the head in newborn infants due to the pelvis size in women. The brain allows for information transfer between generations. Thus natural selection favored mechanisms that keep children in contact with the parents for a long time (learning). Neotony has resulted; the prolongation of childhood and postponement of sexual maturation (puberty). Human brain size suggests a group size of about 150 individuals; the number appears to be the fundamental unit of group cohesion. Gibbons w/small brain live in groups of 4-6; chimps with larger brain live in groups of 50-80.

  4. Language. Although many species have evolved sophisticated mechanisms for communicating, humans are the only animals with a true language.

  5. Birth spacing. Births needed to be about four years apart so that mother could carry only one infant. Lactation also prolonged; low energy content of human milk so that infants suckle long and often. This also keeps infant in contact with the mother.

  6. Mating strategy. Female can benefit from male food gathering/hunting so males play a strong role in their lives beyond mating; based on sexual dimorphism (size, facial hair, etc.) polygyny (more than one female per male) appears to be evolved behavioral trait; human females are the only mammal which is a covert ovulator (not even she knows); also female humans are the only mammal whose mammaries (breasts) enlarge prior to the first pregnancy. Implies is a secondary sexual trait and not just used for infant nourishment; Also male semen volume and sperm density suggests that humans are adapted for a low level of sexual activity (e.g. relative to chimpanzees).

  7. Menopause. Humans are one of only a small number of species that exhibit a post-reproductive period. Has been argued that this period evolved for "grandmothering".

Evolution of Modern Man



  • Homo habilis. Called the 'handy man'; approximately 1.8 million yrs old; may have evolved from either Australopithecus afarensis or africanus discovered by Louis and Mary Leakey in Olduvai Gorge; height 4-5 ft; weight about 110 lbs; bigger brain than Australopithecus but a smaller, less projecting face; relatively smaller cheek teeth but larger front teeth; arms shorter in relation to legs, and hip bones permit both bipedal walking and giving birth to babies with large heads.
  • Homo erectus Upright man; lived between 200,000 and 1.6 million yrs ago; evolved in Africa and spread to Europe, East Asia (including Peking man), and Southeast Asia (Java Man or Pithecanthropus); 200,000 yrs ago it was probably extinct, perhaps the victim of competition with its own descendents.
  • Homo sapiens neanderthalensis. Evolved from an archaic form of Homo sapiens around 200,000 yrs ago, and who lived to about 35,000 yrs ago. lived mostly in and about Europe; classic Neandertals were short, extremely muscular, and stocky, with large joints and hands; height about 5 ft 7 in; weight about 154 lb; appearance coincided with the Middle Paleolithic; cold adapted
  • Homo sapiens sapiens. Populations 40,000 yrs ago were living in Africa, Asia, and Europe that did not differ greatly in appearance from modern humans; collectively, they are known as Upper Paleolithic peoples, and include the Cro-Magnons of Europe; greater diversity of tool making evident including the use of chisel-like tools.

    Most paleoanthropologists believe anatomically modern human beings evolved in Africa more than 100,000 years ago. However, until a recent finding in sub-Saharan Africa it was widely believed that the behavior of modern humans arose 40,000 years ago in Europe where humans were first able to make innovative tools, plan for the future and express themselves symbolically. This finding by a team of archeologists working in Zaire, discovered evidence of sophisticated behavior in sub-Saharan Africa perhaps 90,000 years ago. The evidence was in the form of tools with modern appearances including a carved bone harpoon tip with serrated edges. If the dates turn out to be correct, the findings will have profound implications for the evolution of human behavior (1995 Science, 268, 495).

    New View of Human Evolution. Although most anthropologists believe that the human race originated in Africa, new measurements open the possibility that although its prehuman ancestors began in Africa, different variants of the primate genus Homo may have independently evolved in Africa, Europe and Asia. Until now, the oldest human remains in Asia were believed to be about 1 million years old. By comparison, the oldest human remains in Africa were estimated at about 1.8 million years old. Many anthropolocists believed that the age difference between the earliest African and earliest Asian Homo erectus fossils implied that the species got its start in Africa and then radiated much later to other continents. However, this theory has troubled some scientists. For example, Homo erectus in Africa devised what is known as the Acheulean tool kit, frequently found at sites in Africa but not in Asia. If Homo erectus developed in Africa, invented these useful tools and then set out to colonize Asia, why not take their tools along? If, on the other hand, separate branches of the Homo erectus tree evolved simultaneously in Africa and Asia, this problem would be explained: the founders of the Asian branch left home before their African cousins had invented Acheulean tools. This view is strengthened by the recent finding that skull fragments of Homo erectus found some time ago on the Indonesian island of Java are up to 1.8 million years old--as old as the oldest Homo erectus fossils ever found in Africa (Sacramento Bee, February 24, 1994).

    Table 1. Geologic time scales (mya=million years ago).


    Cenozoic present-65
    present-2 Evolution of Homo
    2-65 Flourishing of birds and mammals
    Mesozoic 65-248
    65-144 Flowers, dinosaurs
    144-213 Dominance of dinosaurs; bird origins
    213-248 Origin of mammals and dinosaurs
    Paleozoic 248-590
    {Permian, Carboniferous, Devonian, Silurian, Ordonician, Cambrian}
    Evolution of invertebrates, fish, amphibians, reptiles
    Precambrian 590-4,600 first cells, algae, oxygen atmosphere,

    aQuartenary is divided into two epochs: Recentpresent to 0.01 mya; and Pleistocine0.01-2 mya
    bTertiary is divided into three epochs: Pliocene, Miocene, Oligocene, Eocene, and Paleocene

    Table 2. Time scale for stone age man.

    PERIOD Years Ago Events

    Neolithic present to 10,000 Flourishing of civilization
    Mesolithic 10,000 to 12,000 Emergence of agriculture
    Paleolithic 12,000 to 2 million Stone tools

    Fig. 1. Map illustrating the spread of humans from their African origins to populate the world. Numbers stand for estimated number of years before the present (from The Third Chimpanzee by Jared Diamond, 1992).

    Evolution of farming

    Note that Africa and Americas are north-south whereas Eurasia is east-west. Thus plants and animals can spread along axes where climates similar. Farming is not an invention or a discovery but rather the result of evolution. Hunter-gatherers pick the largest seeds and bring them back to camp. The discards or spilled seeds sprout and begin to grow next to camp. After several generations of this process the plants which produce the largest seeds are growing close the the camp or settlement which has evolved from a hunting camp to a farming commmunity.

    World distribution of large-seeded grass species (wheat, rice, barley, mellet)

    Region/zone Number of species

    West Asia/Mediterranean zone 33
    East Asia 6
    Sub-Saharan Africa 4
    Americas 11
    Australia 2
    TOTAL 56

    Traits for plant domestication:

  • Edible
  • high yields in wild
  • easily grown
  • grow quickly
  • stored (not perishable)
  • self pollinating

    Animal Domestication

    The importance of domesticated mammals rests on surprisingly few species of big terrestrial herbivores. The "major five" include the following:

    The minor species include (note that all are from Eurasia):

    Necessary and Sufficient Conditions for Domestication

    1. Dietherbivores convert plants to meat; 10% conversion rate. 10,000 lbs corn to 1,000 lbs of cow; 100,000 lbs corn to 10,000 lbs herbivore to 1,000 lbs of carnivore; not eat dog; also should eat general plants and not specialized plants
    2. Growth ratemust grow quickly; gorilla and elephants require 15 yrs; cows one year
    3. Captive breedingelaborate courtships not good
    4. Dispositiongrizzly bears eat owners; African buffalos nasty; zebras bite and hold on.
    5. Calm and not panicgazelles and deer hurl themselves into fence
    6. Social structureowner becomes alpha; lead dogs not cats

    Origin of major infectious diseases of humans.

    Human disease Animal closely-related pathogen

    Measles Cattle
    TB Cattle
    Small pox Cattle
    Flu pigs/ducks
    AIDS Chimpanzees

    What farming provides:


    Table 1. Five Main Racial Groups (after Boyd ):

    Race Description

    European includes variety of populations ranging from Lapps of Scandinavia to Mediterranean peoples of Southern Europe and North Africa
    African sub-Saharan African blacks
    Asian includes Mongoloid peoples and population of India-Pakistan subcontinent; some consider Indian as "extra-European caucasoid)
    American all aboriginal populations on American continents
    Pacific/Australian Melanesians, Polynesians and Australian aborigines

    Classification. The divisions between blacks, whites, and the other major groups are arbitrary because each group shades into the others. All the human groups on Earth have mated with humans of every other groups they've encountered. Nevertheless, recognizing these major groups and calling them by these inexact names is a shorthand that makes it easier to understand history. By analogy, it is also useful to divide classical music into periods like "baroque," classical," and "romantic," even though each period is diverse and shades into other periods. (J. Diamond "How Africa Became Black" Discover Magazine, February, 1994)



    Swords, guns, armies and politics. There are three basic life style types: hunter-gatherer, farmer, and nomad. In a farming society with its stored food surpluses and concentrated villages, people have a chance to specialize, to become full-time metal workers, soldiers, Kings and bureaucrats. Hence the farmers, and not the hunter-gatherers or the nomads, are the ones who develop swords and guns, standing armies, and political organizations (J. Diamond, Discover Magazine, Feb. 1994).




    Table 1. Races of humankind (modified from Goldsby, 1963, Coon et al. 1950 and Dobzhanski, 1963).


    North Chinese
    northern and central China and Manchuria
    Classic Mongoloid
    Siberia, Mongolia, Korea, and Japan
    Southeast Asian
    South China, Thailand, Viet Nam, Burma, Indonesia
    aboriginal population of northern Japan
    western China, Turkestan
    Northwest European
    Scandanavia, N. German, Netherlands, United Kingdom
    Northeast European
    Poland, Russia, most of Siberia
    peoples from both sides of Mediterranean from Tangiers to the Dardanelles, including Arabia, Turkey, Iran
    France, S. Germany, Switzerland, N. Italy, Balkans
    arctic Scandinavia and Finland
    North American Black
    new breeding population resulting from an African Black-European hybridization
    South American Black
    significant fraction of Brazilian population with mixture of European, African Black and South American Indian
    North American Indian
    indigenous populations of Canada and the U.S.
    Central American Indian
    from southwestern U.S. through Central America to Bolivia
    South American Indian
    primarily agricultural peoples of Peru, Bolivia and Chile
    arctic America
    emerging population of Mexico, Central and South America
    South African Black
    breeding population resulting from Black-European hybridization; analogous to North American black
    West African Black
    West African and much of Congo
    East African Black
    Kenya, Tanzania, parts of Sudan and Ethiopia
    Bushmen and Hottentot
    aboriginal inhabitants of South Africa
    Forest Pigmy
    rain forests of equatorial Africa
    most of the Sudan
    Mozambique, Angola, parts of Union of South Africa and lower East Africa
    People of Pakistan and northern India
    People of southern India and Sri Lanka
    Aboriginal population of Sri Lanka
    aboriginal population of northern and central Australia
    aboriginal population of Tasmania
    Pacific islands from New Guinea to Fiji
    islands of the western Pacific
    islands of the central and eastern Pacific, notably Hawaii
    Philippines to New Guinea


    1. West African Black.
      1. Live in coastal forests from Senegal to Bight of Biafra.
      2. Tend to be brown rather than black
      3. provided most of blacks to New World; voyage from Europe to coast of Africa across to Brazil, Caribbean and east coast of U.S.

      Timbuktu--Fabled City of Africa. Located near the bend of the Niger River in the country of Mali in Northwestern Africa, Timbuktu dates back to prehistory when it was a stop-over for caravans trading in gold, salt and slaves travelling from sub-Saharan Africa such as Benin or the Ivory Coast to points north such as Morocco, Tunis or Tripoli. The savannah meets the desert in this region so the trans-Saharan camel caravans would transfer their cargo to donkey caravans.

    2. East African Black
      1. Horn of Africa
      2. Includes various subgroups including the Masai;
      3. consists of lakes and highland tribes and covers Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia and Mozambique
      4. many agriculturalists but also hunter gatherers, include the Nilotes (due to provenance in Nile region) are cattle-owning people
      5. Arab influence on coast broach influence of Islam

    3. Bushmen and Hottentot
      1. Bushmen are the desert hunters
      2. short (5 ft), skin yellow brown, wrinkled; broad nose contrast with thin lips, pointed chin
      3. they are the hunter/gatherers of the Kalahari Desert
      4. Hottentots are less short (5.5 ft)
      5. shometimes large buttocks in women
      6. differ from the Bushmen as are pastorals that herd cattle.

    4. Forest Pygmy
      1. The pygmies are short 4 ft. 6 in., people of the forest who live by hunting and gathering
      2. close to Bushmen blood groups but live in forest
      3. speak both Sudanic and Bantu languages
      4. the only people who are not afraid of forest; Some people feel that pygmies are the original and unique population of Africa and that West African
      5. blacks who surround them are a mixture of very long standing of pygmy and Caucasian
      6. pygmies and bushmen may be ecological races of single basic stock.

    5. Sudanese
      1. Inhabit hot and dry savanna region between forest belt and Sahara desert
      2. tall, strongly built and black skinned
      3. curly as distinct from frizzy hair

    6. Bantu
      1. descendents of people who emerged from equatorial rain forests of Central Africa
      2. actually a mixture of Hamitic, nigrillo and Bushmen types
      3. united by Bantu language.

    7. South African Black
      1. called "Cape Coloreds"
      2. descended from union of Dutch and Huguenot settlers with indigenous Hottentots and to lesser extent the Bantu and Malay
      3. these rank just below whites in social hierarchy


    Three major racial divisions:

    1. Europoid of north and of large parts of peninsular India
    2. Mongoloid race near Himilayan regions
    3. Tribal populations in Middle and southern parts dwell in veddoid or proto-australoid

    1. Vedda
      1. Semi-nomadic tribe inhabiting forests of highlands of central Sri Lanka
      2. remnants of primitive racial stratum which extended over pre-historic times all over south and South East Asia
      3. small in stature with dark brown skin and curly or wavy hair; broad faces, flat noses, deeply set eyes, full lips, weak receding chins
      4. live in caves use stone implements arrow points, flakes and scrapers; no concept of trapping or fishing except poisoned water
      5. similar to Ainu of Japan.

    2. Dravidians
      1. Spread into India well before Indo-Aryans appeared
      2. pushed into southern India, major group is the Tamil
      3. physical features vary from small, dark and black-African looking to tall Aryan-looking
      4. The Tamil are primarily in Sri Lanka and have a strict caste system from Brahmin to untouchables.

    3. Hindus
      1. Hindus are a people first and a religion second
      2. the word Hindu is primarily a social term; best described by a process of elimination--inhabitant of India, practices Hinduism as religion, must be born a Hindu cannot achieve it (no converts).
      3. The classical definition is one who adheres to four broad classes or varnas.
      4. At the top are the Brahmin (learned)
      5. followed by the Kshatriyas (warrior)
      6. Traders and merchants
      7. Laborers, servants and others who have low social status but are still in the system)
      8. Four stages within each class including student, householder, forest dweller and ascetic.
      9. Under them all are the outcastes who are outside of the system and therefore are "untouchable". They do the lowliest of jobs such as latrine cleaning
      10. up to 75% of India's people are Sudras or outcastes
      11. The Hindus are descended from a variety of races including: aboriginals, Dravidians, Aryans, Mongols and Semites.


    1. Melanesian
      1. Includes Fiji and includes islands northeast of Australia
      2. darker skinned and heavier than other two broad groups; comes from mixed Papauan and immigrant stocks; southeast New Guinea to Fiji Islands and south to New Calendonia
      3. short 5 to 5 1/2 ft; heads long, broad noses; skin from dark coffee to light brown; hair frizzy to wavy
      4. Prevailing wisdom was that Melanesians came from one or two migrations out of Asia within the last 10,000 years
      5. yet the poeple of the island of Malaita had blond Afros, while the highland people of nearby Bougainville had wiry hair and jet-black skin like West Africans
      6. however, movements may have been ancient and diverse. A growing body of evidence suggests these islands (The Solomon Islands) could be one of the first, not last, parts of the world to be settled by modern humans (Science, 268, 265, 1995).

  • Micronesian
    1. most of Micronesian islands are north of the equator; most are small (micro) coral atoll formations and include the Caroline, Marianna, Marshall and Gilbert islands
    2. physically heterogeneious and tend to be smaller than the Polynesians who are often massive;

  • Polynesian
    1. these islands cover a greater area than other two main Pacific groups
    2. form triangle from New Zealand to Hawaii to Easter Island
    3. includes Tahiti, Bali, Bora Bora, Samoa; some are relatively light skinned and almost caucasian features; others (eg. Tahiti) are darker-skinned and mongoloid in appearance
    4. the island Mas a Tierra is the island of Robinson Crusoe which is about 500 miles west of Chile
    5. island is about 35 square miles; written by the Scot Alexander Selkirk who lived on island for four years starting in 1704; believed to originate from India by way of Indonesia though evidence that admixture from South America;
    6. heavy and broad faces with high forehead, large straight nose, full defined lips, rounded jaw-line; black eyes--sometimes with a slanting Mongoloid appearance; wavy hair.

  • Negrito
    1. May be one of remnants of Australoid peoples similar to Ainu, Vedda and Aborigines
    2. Austro-asiatic or Negrito stock which is related to pygmy
    3. only a few thousand left; the first people to reach this area were migrant peoples of the prehistoric period from the Asian land mass
    4. the negrito descendants of these aborigine migrants live isolated in the mountains of eastern and western Luzon and in the north-east Mindanao of Phillipines
    5. hunt small game with bows and arrows and blowpipes.


    1. Carpentarian
      1. traditionally hunters/gatherers
      2. believed to have migrated from India, Malaya and New Guinea via Cape York peninsula
      3. long narrow skulls, deep set eyes, wide nostils
      4. hair way to frizzy
      5. around 100,000 survive

    2. Tasmania
      1. Tasmania was joined to mainland until 11,000 years ago but separation forced people to remain in the Stone Age
      2. average height was 5 ft 4 in
      3. 1876 the last full-blooded Tasmanian died; when first discovered dubbed "representative of Paleolithic men" and were denied their humanity
      4. never advanced further than chipping and flaking stone implements
      5. could not draw, no mythology, canoes were bundles of bark tied together; obtained fire by rubbing sticks rather than "groove" method.


    1. Classic Mongoloid
      1. Siberia, Mongolia, Korea, and Japan
      2. Japanese thought to have come to Japan from Korea driving the aboriginal peoples out
      3. language remains a mystery since close affinities to Polynesian, Turkish and Finnish languages
      4. Koreans--Chinese cultural influences seeped down from north and distinctive, fairly homogenous Korean national culture developed
      5. Mongolians--stepps are huge spaces that lie between great mountain chains; Mongolia is vast plateau covering 600,000 square miles with Gobi Desert in south
      6. Ghenghis Khan in 12th century united hundreds of tribes into one vast empire from Europe to Korea.

    2. North Chinese
      1. northern and central China and Manchuria
      2. China is the heartland of the mongoloid people; thought to have evolved there over a million years ago
      3. around 94% of the Chinese population are Han peoples; Manchurians are separate group in northern China.

    3. Southeast Asian
      1. South China, Thailand, Viet Nam, Burma, Indonesia, Cambodia
      2. where to draw the line between Southeast Asian and Pacific peoples is not clear cut especially between Indonesia and the Phillipines
      3. Filipinos are now a distinctive race with an admixture of Chinese, Spanish and American (another mixture) blood
      4. Indonesians are a mixture of Malay, Melanesian and Papuan with over 300 ethnic groups and 250 languages
      5. Indonesia includes Bali, Sumatra, west Borneo, Java; the Cambodians are the most australoid-looking people in Southeast Asia while the Burmese are the most mongoloid looking.

    4. Tibetan
      1. includes peoples of himalayan kingdoms of Sikkim, Tibet and Bhutan
      2. Tibetans live in high Tibetan plateau of Himilayas
      3. most have black hair and dark brown skins
      4. people of Tibet live on the highest extensive tract of land in the world, on a plateau more than 10,000 feet above sea level
      5. farmers and nomads; origins of the Tebetans, who are a racially diverse people is a mystery; look much like the ancient mongols.

    5. Ainu
      1. aboriginal people of Japan
      2. main habitat is island of Hokkaido which is northernmost of the large Japanese islands
      3. hairiness is Ainu's outstanding physical characteristic;
      4. skilled carvers; women tatoo mouth when available for marriage
      5. distinctly non-Mongoloid but rather a heavy-featured Caucasoid.

    6. Turkic

      1. Includes Turkey, Eiran, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Syria, Iraq and Soviet Central Asia
      2. Caucasoid similar to Europeans from Greece to France; light brown skins and black or dark brown hair
      3. lots of body hair, large curly beards and bushy eyebrows that meet in tuft in middle
      4. lightest skins on Aegean coast of Turkey.

    Fig. 2. Plants and animals spread quickly and easily within a climate zone to which they are already adapted. To spread out of this zone they have to develop new varieties with different climate tolerances (from Diamond 1992).


    Europe contains chains of mountains that have historically acted as boundaries of human activity.

    1. Northwest European
      1. Scandanavia, N. German, Netherlands, Great Britain, Ireland; Celtic=Irish, Betons, Welsh, Highland Scots; Nordic=Scandinavian, Germainic=Teutonic=all north European people from German, Scandinavian and English; Angles, Saxons and Jutes=Germanic people of that settle in England in fifth century; British Isles: Barrier is English Channel
      2. United Kingdom: includes England, Scotland (mtns separating from England), Wales, Northern Ireland (across Irish Sea; is political remnant of English domination of Ireland); and ii)Ireland;
      3. Located in transitional environment between maritime Britain, Arctic north, mountains of central Europe and Mediterranean south; includes France, western Germany, Belgium, The Netherlands and Luxembourg;
      4. France--Alp barrier to east and Pyrenees;
      5. Brittany--vestigial Celtic culture hearth part of France
      6. Germany--two physical environments i)northern plains; and ii)mountainous south;
      7. Benlux Countries: i)The Netherlands--sits astride two great rivers the Maas and the Rhine; and ii)Belgium--unites two diverse populations the Flemings (speak Flemish) and the Walloons (speak French);
      8. northern Europe----barrier is North Sea; includes Norway, Sweden, Denmark Finland and Iceland (island which is outpost of Norse exploration in Atlantic); Scandanavian Peninsula: Norway and Sweden.

    2. Northeast European
      1. Includes the Slavic and Baltic speaking peoples of eastern Europe from Latvia to Bulgaria;
      2. includes the Ashkenazim (northern group of Jews), Cossacks Czechs, Estonians, Latvians, Lithuanians, Mordvins, Poles, Russians, Slavs, Tatars, Ukrainians, Albanians, Bugars, Greeks, Macedonians, Rumanians Serbo-Croats and Slovenes

    3. Mediterranean
      1. peoples from both sides of Mediterranean from Tangiers to the Dardanelles, including Arabia, Turkey and Iran;
      2. Arabs--originally name of Semitic inhabitants of the Arabian peninsula; word "Arab" today means generally all persons whose native language is Arabic and who share a common culture and heritage includes Egypt, Sudan, Morocco, Algiers, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Yemen, Tunisia, Lebanon, Jordan, Libya and Kuwait;
      3. The Trucial Coast (now Union of Arab Emirates)--desert tribes, includes Abu Dhabi
      4. Iraq--Marsh Arabs; Saudi Arabia--the Empty Quarter--last explored part of the earth because nothing there
      5. Iberians--Spanish and Portuguese; theis group includes Andalusians, Basques (extremely old subgroup in Spain and France), Catalans (NE Spain), Gibraltarians, Portuguese, Sephardic Jews (Spain), Balearic Islanders, Corsicans (French island north of Sardinia), Cypriots and Greeks, Maltese, Oscans (southern Italy), Sardinieans, Savoyards (French and Italian mountains), Scicilians (between Italy and Africa);
      6. Berbers and Moors found in Morocco
      7. Barriers include Pyrenees and Alps; includes Portugal, Spain, Italy and Greece;
      8. successesive layers of civilizations include Phoenicians, Minoans, Greek, Roman, Byzantine, Arab and Modern.

    4. Alpine
      1. located in Alps which are the backbone of Europe including Italy, Switzerland, Austria, Yugoslavia; includes the Tyrolese who live in the mountainous Austrian Tyrol;
      2. close to the Alpine Swiss; typically live in alpine community with a large central village and a number of hamlets;
      3. Switzerland and Austria are landlocked nations formed by high mountains that separate Continental and Mediterranean Europe
      4. Austria vestige of the Austro-Hungarian Empire (southern Germans), framed by Danube Valley and Alps
      5. Switzerland is multinational state, neutral; speak four languages (German, Italian, French and Romansk--like Latin); Swiss lowlands.

    5. Lapp
      1. Arctic Scandinavia and Finland
      2. reindeer nomads related to Finnish but extremely old culture that has remained isolated
      3. the Eskimos are more of the sea culture whereas the Lapps are the inland culture
      4. Lapps are 20 to 50% Siberian and 50 to 80% European (Scandinavian).


    Domesticating Animals
    By around 4000 BC west Eurasia had its "Big Five" domestic livestock--sheep, goats, pigs, cows, and horses (East Asians domesticated four other cattle species--yaks, water buffalo, gaur, and banteng). These animals provided food, power, clothing and military advantage (i.e. horses). Why didn't American Indians reap similar benefits by domesticating the corresponding native American mammal species: mountain sheep, goats, peccaries, bison, and tapirs? Or Australians mount kangaroos to invade Eurasia? The answer is that only a tiny fraction of the world's wild mammal species have been domesticated. There are three crucial characteristics of animals required to domesticate: i)social species so that the herd's subordinate individuals have submissive behavior towards dominant individuals; ii)cannot be nervous such as deer and antelope; and iii)must be able to breed in captivity (from Diamond 1992).

    1. North American Indian
      1. The Indians may have been more like earlier Mongoloids than present day Mongoloids
      2. main groups include: Blackfoot (Indians of forest in Canada), California Indians, Cherokee (Appalachia), Cheyenne (plains Indians in Dakotas/Wyoming), Chipewyan (Subarctic in Northwest Territories of Canada), Cree (subarctic group), Great Basin Indians, Iroquois Confederation (North-eastern Indians lived in villages along streams/lakes and raised crops of sweet corn, benas, squash), Ojibway (subarctic), Pawnee (Plains Indian in Nebraska etc), Shoshone (Great Basin), Hopi (southwest such as Arizona), Navaho (south west).

    2. Central American Indian
      1. At least 90% of people in Central America are mestizos: descendants of unions between Spanish and Indians
      2. today Indians represent only about 8% of population
      3. the face of Central American Indian is less flat than that of the east Asian mongoloid
      4. he has a more prominent nose; and his skin pigmentation is darker; slender inbuild with dark eyes and a noticeable lack of body hair
      5. stands between 5 ft 2 in and 5 ft 6 in although some groups qualify as pygmies.
      6. About 3.5 million Indians in Mexico and Central America.

      Ethnic Trump. That my son, Luke, goes to Chinese-culture school seems inevitable to most people, even though his father is of Irish descent. For certain ethnicities trump others; Chinese, for example, trumps Irish. This has to do with the relative distance of certain cultures from mainstream American culture, but it also has to do with race. For as we all know, it is not only certain ethnicities that trump others but certain colors: black trumps white, for example, always and forever; a mulatto is not a kind of white person, but a kind of black person. (from Gish Jen, New York Times Magazine, July 7, 1996).

    3. South American Indian
      1. Two massive geographical influences--Amazonian system (lowlands) and Andes (highlands). Portugal took possession of Brazil.
      2. All European powers had the disadvantage to contend with that in this region there were no united Indian empires there for the taking. Each tribe was an autonomous political unit and each had to be pacified, subjugated or treated separately. Many tribes still practice scalping, head hunting and head-shrinking.
      3. People of highland tend to be either Spanish, mestizo or Indian (not African).
      4. mestizos is mix of the fire of the Spaniards and the tenacity and craftmanship of the Andean Indian
      5. Main Indian settlements in Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador
      6. at height the Inca Empire stretched from the south of Colombia to central Chile--a distance greater than the width of the entire U.S.

    4. South American Black
      1. Cross between Indian, African and Spanish
      2. range over much of South America; descended from the four million or so slaves who were transported into South America to work on sugar plantations; one of the most striking aspects of the Afro-Brazilian culture are the religious cults, such as macumba; from this African class that Carnaval, the pre-Lenten feast, derives its spontaneity.

    5. Eskimo
      1. More like modern Asian than any of the other New World races because they possess blood type B as do present day Asians but this blood type is not present in Indians of Americas
      2. feel migration only 6,000 years ago; their way of life is to hunt large sea mammals and have seagoing boats for hunting and travel; would not have need Bering Strait bridge to cross over
      3. Eskimos were part of interior plains up to 300 years ago
      4. then Cree Indians obtained guns and forced back to northerly fringes; Eskimos not warriors; polar Eskimos most northerly peoples

      Black. Despite increasing use of the term African-American, most black Americans still prefer to be called black, according to a survey conducted in 1991 by the Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, a black-oriented study group. It found 72% said they preferred black. The change from black to African American was first proposed in 1988 at a meeting in Chicago to lay the groundwork for the African-American Summit. Jesse Jackson, New York Mayor David Dinkins and other prominent blacks embraced the change. Blacks with some college education were more likely to favor the new term than those who had not gone beyond high school (Associated Press, Davis Enterprise, January 28, 1991).

    6. North American Black
      1. Slaves were in Haiti as early as 1501
      2. around 10 million blacks arrived in western hemisphere; 60% in 19th century destined for sugar plantations of Brazil and Caribbean
      3. majority of slaves bound for North American arrived during span of 70 years from 1741 to 1810
      4. 1865 abolition of slavery
      5. first generation to live in freedom in U.S. were 3rd and 4th generation natives of the U.S.; most bound to British North America appear to come from narrow strip of west Africa coast: 50% from Angola and southern Nigeria; 1/8th each from Ghana, Senegal, Gambia and Sierra Leone; some from Benin, Biafra and Mozambique
      6. during slavery many children were born to black mothers and white fathers. Second generation were 1/4 black and third generation was 1/8 black. Most individuals that were 3/4 or more white ancestry could "pass for white" and thus, could join white community and bestow genes upon it (Brues, 1977). North American blacks are 50% European in the north and 10% European in the south
      7. blacks will be indistinguishable from whites in 1000 years if rates of inbreeding continued as over last 300 years.

    7. Latino
      1. Latin America consists of i)Middle America (Mexico, Caribbean, Central America and Antilles) and ii)South America
      2. when Spaniard conquered Mexico and Central America in the early 16th Century there were two great civilizations--Aztecs and Maya
      3. However, for every 10 men who came from Spain there was only one woman. Thus a Spanish/Indian population started including concubines and wives. South America, Central America, Mexico and West Indies are commonly known as Latin America.
      4. Hispanic derived from Latin Hispanicus. Hispania was the name of the Roman province of the Iberian Peninsula in Lusitania. Thus refers to both Spanish and Portuguese.


    Brooks, A. S. et al. 1995. Dating and context of three middle stone age sites with bone points in the upper Semliki Valley, Zaire. Science 268:548-553.

    Brues, Alice. 1977. People and Races. Macmillan Publishing Co., New York.

    Cavalli-Sforza, L. L. and W. F. Bodmer. 1971. The Genetics of Human Populations. W. H. Freeman, San Francisco.

    Diamond, J. 1992. The Third Chimpanzee. Harper Perennial, New York.

    Diamond, J. 1994. How Africa Became Black" Discover Magazine, February issue.

    Gibbons, A. 1995. Old dates for modern behavior. Science 268: 495-496.

    Hrdy, S. The Woman That Never Evolved. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.

    Roosevelt, A. C. et al. 1996. Paleoindian cave dwellers in the Amazon: the peopling of the americas. Science 272:373-384.

    Shreeve, J. 1996. Sunset on the savanna. Discover Magazine 17:117-125. (July, 1996 issue).

    Thernstrom, Stephen (Ed.) 1980. Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.

    Tishkoff, S. A., et al. 1996. Global patterns of linkage disequilibrium at the CD4 locus and modern human origins. Science 271:1380-1387.

    Yellen, J. E. et al. 1995. A middle stone age worked bone industry from Katanda, Upper Semliki Valley, Zaire. Science 268:553-556.

    Return to the Course Syllabus