Ancient Jewish Accounts of Jesus

The so called Testimonium Flavianum. This is the only direct discussion of Jesus to be found in the writings of Josephus.

Celsus. This is, presumably, a portion of the anti-Christian polemic written by Celsus in the 2nd c. CE.

Tertullian. Tertullian's summary of Jewish response to the gospel accounts.

Yeshu and Joshua b. Perachiah. This is a story from the Babylonian Gemara about someone who may, or may not be Jesus.

Simeon b. Azzai discovers the record of an illegitimate birth: the only presumed reference to Jesus in the Mishna.

Baraitha: Redeeming evidence sought. An account of the heresy trial of someone named Yeshu.

The Toledoth Yeshu. This is a derogatory version of the life of Jesus, growing out of the response of the Jewish community to Christianity.

Micro-bibliography. This is really just a list of sources I have used for translations. Perhaps I will add a fuller bibliography later.

Last Modified
Feb. 17, 1997
Prepared by Alan Humm